What Is Artificial Intelligence?
Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science that involves the study and design of intelligent machines. John McCarthy defined artificial intelligence as the science of creating artificial machines after a conference that took place in 1956 at Dartmouth. These intelligent machines resemble human beings because they have human qualities.
Artificial intelligence entails numerous disciplines. Some of these disciplines include Mathematics, logic, engineering, philosophy, computer science, social sciences, cognitive sciences and psychology. These fields and sciences are interrelated and they are very important in the creation of intelligent machines. When these machines are created, they are used in the following fields:
- Soft computing
- Natural language processing
- Learning systems
- Knowledge representation & reasoning
- Logic programming
- Image recognition
- Computer vision
- Image understanding
- Expert systems
Although researchers have encountered and still encounter several problems when simulating human intelligence, they have been able to make great developments over the years. Just like in development of electronic computers, artificial intelligence has made rapid evolutions since 1956. This has resulted in researchers being able to successfully create intelligent machines that can do what human beings can. For the machines to be effective, they must have a number of characteristics that correspond with particular standards. This is important for the machines created to be able to do what human beings can do. To enable intelligent machines to solve problems, researchers have to analyse the knowledge of representation. This refers to the knowledge about the world to help these machines solve the problems related to objects, properties of objects, categories of objects, relations etc. There are other challenges that researchers face when creating intelligent machines. The intelligent machines must be able to set a number of goals that should be achieved, plan for the problems that should be solved, must be able to learn, understand human languages, make choices and predict actions, display emotions, understand and predict the behaviours of others.
With all these challenges, it is evident that artificial intelligence field is a vast field which is quite challenging. The field has numerous unanswered questions that generate a lot of controversies although it offers solutions to many technological problems.